Transition to a more sustainable society is to a high extend constituted by profound changes in two areas: our production and consumption of energy and materials. But these cannot be considered as purely technical issues; they depend on and involve social dynamics at all levels.
Sustainable energy supply is about increasing the use of renewable energy sources and making our use of energy more efficient. Sustainable use of materials is about increased reuse and recycling of scarce goods and resources. Transition in both these areas comprise changes in the economy, in everyday life and the interaction between people and technology and in social norms and values.
We assess the preconditions for and consequences of sustainable solutions regarding energy supply, energy consumption and use of materials, and how solutions can be integrated and regulated at all levels of society. Our analyses include both direct and indirect consequences of the solutions. Not all renewable energy and recycling solutions are necessarily environmentally, socially and economically sustainable. Some solutions are associated with considerations and contradictions e.g.: